Radical: Antonio Gramsci
Antonio Gramsci is known as an Italian Neo-Marxist and member of the Italian Communist Party who was imprisoned by Benito Mussolini’s fascist regime. Gramsci can also be attributed to the creation of philosophic and sociological concept of cultural hegemony. It is very similar to the current political Progressive movement in the United States. Gramsci believed that diverse social classes can be effectively ruled by an elite intellectual class. This theory is the epitome of tribalism or simply communism.
Gradualism or Incrementalism
Differing from Lenin and Stalin, Gramsci saw that violent revolution was a contradiction to human logic. He believed that the Communist would have to abandon all Leninist methods of revolution. Instead the Communist would have to get the national consensus through tradition democratic processes. He believed that a more sustainable and successful model for revolution was through a gradual and incremental cultural transformation. Gramsci believed that the Communist must justify any means in order to achieve the desired end even if it meant colluding with the enemy. This idea was the birth of modern Progressivism.
Gramsci witnessed the strength of a fortified Christian Europe during the early 1900’s. He rejected Christianity much like his Marxist brethren. He knew that Christianity was the bond that held together all classes. For this reason he knew that in order to achieve the utopian goal of communism, the Communist needed to destroy Christianity. In order to do this he knew that he would not only convince people to have a non-Christian mind but they would have to have an anti-Christian mind. He also knew that the proletariat would have to learn to solve problems without the transcendent aspects of Christianity. Gramsci saw a way to achieve these ends by the use of Liberation Theology. Liberation Theology would not only create a new type of radical revolutionary but would also discourage the more conservative religious follower.
Gramsci also believed that Common sense was an illusion.
Common sense is not something rigid and stationary, but is in continuous transformation, becoming enriched with scientific notions and philosophical opinions that have entered into common circulation. 'Common sense' is the folklore of philosophy and always stands midway between folklore proper (folklore as it is normally understood) and the philosophy, science, and economics of the scientists. Common sense creates the folklore of the future, a relatively rigidified phase of popular knowledge in a given time and place.
Gramsci led the way for modern day Progressivism. Cultural destruction was imperative for the installation of communism. In order to fundamentally transform the country to the Marxist utopia, a complete cultural transformation was needed. The people would have to reject the intangible and unfathomable greatness of God for the finite knowledge and fallible essence of man. Gramsci’ revolution was not only to destroy humanity but was ultimately a war on God.